Proceedings of the 61stAnnual Meeting of the
Acadian Entomological Society
in conjunction with the
Maine Entomological Society
August 22-24, 2002 at
The University of P.E.I., Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island
Wednesday August 22nd, 2001
7:30-9:30pm Registration & Wine and Cheese Mixer - Rodd Royalty Inn, CharlottetownThursday August 23rd, 2001
8:30 am Registration
- Duffy Science Building, UPEI
8:55am Welcome and Introductions
9:00am Keynote Address: Dr. Robbin Lindsay, Health Canada
"Vector-borne diseases in Atlantic Canada"
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY SECTION:
10:30 - 10:45 Effect of prescribed burn on the abundance and
species composition of Carabidae in a balsam fir forest of Western Newfoundland.
R. Feng, D. Wells, W. Bowers and M. Mann; Natural Resources Canada, Canadian
Forest Service - Atlantic, Corner Brook, Newfoundland
11:00-11:15 The long distance spread into Maine of Hemlock woolly
Adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, on easter hemlock Tsuga Canadensis (L),
nursery stock. Don Oullette, Insect and Disease Laboratory, 50
Hospital St. Augusta, Me, 04330.
11:45-12:00 Influence of Plant Module Size on the Abundance and Performance of two Gall Midges Helene Syndique, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, UNB - Student Presentation
12:00-1:30pm Lunch (on your own)
CROP PROTECTION ENTOMOLOGY SECTION:
1:30 - 1:45 Role of the antennae, elytra and legs of the Colorado potato beetle during flight take-off. G. Boiteau, AAFC- Fredericton Potato Research Centre.
1:45 - 2:00 Last Call® 'bait and kill' as an alternative to conventional pesticides in managing codling moth (Cydia pomonella, (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations in apple orchards. Rob F. Smith, Lynn Meyers and Michelle Larsen, Atlantic Food & Horticulture Research Centre, 32 Main Street, Kentville, N.S., B4N 1J5, 902-679-5730, email: SmithR@em.agr.ca
2:00 - 2:15 The Bees of Nova Scotia - Part A Cory S. Sheffield, AAFC - Kentville - Student Presentation
2:15 - 2:30 The Bees of Nova Scotia - Part B Dick Rogers, Wildwood Labs, Kentville, NS
2:30 - 2:45pm The Chemical nature of the Resistance to the Colorado
Potato Beetle of Wild Solanum Species - Preliminary Results.
Y. Pelletier, C.L. Clark, J. Embleton, and R. King, AAFC - Fredericton
2:45 - 3:00 Break
3:00 - 3:15 Evaluating the Ramp Pitfall Trap Sue Rigby,
AAFC - Kentville, NS
3:15 - 3:30 Comparison of different methods of flow measurement
used to characterize stream insect habitat. Eedy, R. and D.Giberson,
Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown,
PEI C1A 4P3 - Student Presentation
3:45 - 4:00 Discovery of a salt marsh caddisfly in PEI salt marshes.
D. Giberson, Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward
Island, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3
7:00- 9:00pm Awards Banquet held at the Brackley Northwinds
Motel, Brackley Beach, PEI. (15 minute drive from Charlottetown, transportation
can be arranged)
Friday August 24th, 2001
L. Robbin Lindsay Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens,
National Microbiology Laboratory, Health Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Ixodes scapularis, as well as the prevalence of the agents of
Lyme borreliosis and HGE in ticks collected by active and passive surveillance
throughout Canada, will be provided to exemplify this point. A total of
74 species of mosquitoes have been reported from Canada and human (or
animal) cases of mosquito-borne diseases like western equine encephalitis,
St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), and eastern equine encephalitis have occurred
infrequently in Canada. Recently, West Nile (WN) virus, a flavivirus similar
to SLE virus, was discovered for the first time in the western hemisphere,
in parts of northeastern United States. An overview of the surveillance
program to detect WN virus in Canada and the results of mosquito surveillance
studies conducted in central and eastern Canada during 2000 will be provided.
Although the objectives and methodology used to conduct the mosquito surveillance
studies varied somewhat among provinces, they revealed that the principal
enzootic vectors for WN virus as well as many of the "bridging vectors"
(i.e., ones capable of transmitting this virus to humans or other animals)
are widely distributed and locally abundant in most regions sampled. Thus
should WN virus be introduced into Canada, virus amplification and possible
spill-over into human populations could occur. Ways to improve current
field-based surveillance systems will be suggested and some of the inherent
problems associated with conducting mosquito-borne disease surveillance
(and control programs) will be highlighted.
Effect of prescribed burn on the abundance and species composition
of Carabidae in a balsam fir forest of Western Newfoundland.
R. Feng, D. Wells, W. Bowers and M. Mann; Natural Resources Canada, Canadian
Forest Service - Atlantic, Corner Brook, Newfoundland
Don Oullette, Insect and Disease Laboratory, 50 Hospital St. Augusta,
In 1999 a shipment of uncertified trees from Connecticut with HWA infested trees was received and sold from two nursery garden centers in York and Camden, Maine. Pest alerts, and public announcements were employed to seek help in locating infested trees. All sites of planted hemlock nursery trees from infested shipments were treated with horticultural oil plus Talstar; infested trees were destroyed; and sites were scheduled to be watched for signs of HWA infestations for a period of 5 years.
Planting sites with infested nursery stock from shipments other than
the 1999 lot were also found and treated during 2000 and 2001. Infestations
occurred on planted stock only. A total of 154 infested or unsold hemlocks
were found and destroyed during the 1999 - 2001 period. Over 65 residential
sites with hemlocks from infested shipments are being monitored and checked
annually for signs of hemlock woolly adelgid.
Lethal and sublethal effects of Neemix 4.5 EC, a commercial neem preparation, on balsam fir sawfly, Neodiprion abietis (Harris) were determined in the laboratory. The results indicated that larval mortality of N. abietis increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Lethal time decreased with an increase of neem concentration. In terms of LC50, toxicity of Neemix to the sawfly is comparable to that of Dylox 420 EC, an organophosphate insecticide that is very toxic to N. abietis. The results also revealed that younger larvae are more susceptible to neem than older instars.
Neemix 4.5 EC at high concentrations showed some repellency to N. abietis
larvae, but not at low concentrations. The strong antifeedant effects
of neem on N. abietis larvae were evidenced by significant reduction of
frass production. Larvae fed on neem-treated foliage with 90 ppm AZA produced
only 16% of the frass, compared with those produced by larvae fed on water-treated
foliage. Sublethal doses of Neemix 4.5 EC retarded larval and pupal development,
significantly reduced pupal weight and adult emergence rate. The sex ratio
of N. abietis adults seemed not to be affected by sublethal doses of neem.
The author also discussed the strategies of using neem-based insecticides
to control this sawfly in the forests.
Lisa Mushrow, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, UNB - student presentation, Andrew Morrison, Dan Quiring, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, UNB Fredericton, and Jon Sweeney, Canadian Forest Service
The Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle, Tetropium fuscum (Fabr.),
was recently discovered in Point Pleasant Park in Halifax, Nova Scotia
and was given exotic pest status. We examined the use of heat treatment
as a phytosanitary measure to eradicate T. fuscum from infested
wood. Cerambycid larvae, pupae, and adults were obtained from slabs and
bolts of infested logs collected at Point Pleasant Park in spring 2001.
The three life stages were placed in blocks of spruce and heated for different
combinations of temperature and time. Larvae were the most difficult to
kill, followed by pupae and adults. Larvae died when subjected to 50°
for 30 minutes or to 55° for 5 minutes.
Influence of Plant Module Size on the Abundance and Perfomance
of two Gall Midges
We carried out a field study to examine the influence of leaf size on
the abundance and performance of Harmandia cavernosa and H.
tremulae (Cecidomyiidae). Our results will be used to test predictions
from the plant vigour, plant stress and the plant parabolic fitness hypotheses.
Crop Protection Entomology Section:
Role of the antennae, elytra and legs of the Colorado potato beetle during flight take-off. G. Boiteau, AAFC- Fredericton Potato Research Centre.
A series of descriptive and experimental tests carried out in a walk-in flight chamber provided new information on the flight take-off behavior of the Colorado potato beetle. Five main conclusions were reached:
* The flight take-off and lift off are strongly sequenced.
* The sensors on the antennae are important not only during flight but also at take-off.
* The elytra are a necessary foil for lift-off and have a wingbeat.
* The rising of the pro and meso thoracic legs probably free thoracic space for muscles but also partially control lift-off angle and height of flight.
* The tarsal reflex does not induce wing movement in this species but
tarsal contact during flight interrupts it.
Last Call® 'bait and kill' as an alternative to conventional pesticides in managing codling moth (Cydia pomonella, (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations in apple orchards. Rob F. Smith, Lynn Meyers and Michelle Larsen, Atlantic Food & Horticulture Research Centre, 32 Main Street, Kentville, N.S., B4N 1J5, 902-679-5730, email: SmithR@em.agr.ca
Cash operating costs of $7,000.00 per hectare are required to produce quality apples that meet the market place expectations of quality flavour and blemish free appearance. With average yields of 1500 bushel per hectare pesticides alone account for 10-15% of production costs ($1140.00/ha). 60-75% of all insecticides used are organophosphates, a family of product that is under close scrutiny regarding toxicity to humans and negative impacts on the environment. Codling moth is consistently ranked in the top three key pests requiring 60-87% of Annapolis Valley orchardists to apply control measures; traditionally there has been but one generation until recent years when because of increase heat units a partial second generation has occurred, further complicating pest management. Despite reliable sex pheromone based monitoring traps and sound degree day predictive models timing sprays, this pest accounted for 1.25% & 1.68% in 2000 and 2001, respectively. This represents an average annual loss of nearly $250,000.
Mating disruption and 'bait & kill' offer alternatives to conventional pesticide sprays. The former has current registration with the Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency, Health Canada. Last Call® 'bait & kill' (6% permethrin & 0.16% sex pheromone) has USA registration and in pending registration in Canada. Two years of extensive trials in the Maritimes has demonstrated the utility of this product, particularly in well managed orchards where tree height is < 3m and application from the ground is time efficient (i.e. does not require the use of a pole applicator device).
An average application rate of 3000 droplets per hectare required 3-5 hours of labour. In 2000 crop loss in 20 blocks treated with Last Call® was ca. 0.5% while 30 Nova Scotia orchards in 2001 averaged 0.55% codling moth damage. These results equalled or were less than orchards treated with Guthion 50WP (0.03% loss) or Imidan 50WP (4.43% loss); unsprayed blocks had 8-9% fruit loss. There were no differences in damage between treatments of 3000 or 6000 droplets/ha. In 2001 some blocks experienced higher damage in border rows, a consequence of gravid females migrating into the orchards from nearby abandoned or unsprayed host trees. Last Call® worked well in orchards that had previous year codling moth damage < 1%; product & labour were competitive with conventional pesticide applications, while depositing no active ingredient on the fruit.
We acknowledge the following project participants: IPM Technologies Canada
Ltd., Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Association, Prince Edward Island Apple
Growers Association, New Brunswick Fruit Growers Association, Dick Rogers
owner/operator of Wildwood Labs , Evans Estabrooks & Associates, Garth
Nickerson, Rachael Cassie & Rachael Cheverie.
Wild tuber-bearing Solanum species are a source of insect resistance. Use of insect resistant plants reduces the use of insecticides and is compatible with environmentally friendly means of insect control such as Integrated Pest Management and the use of natural enemies. Several wild Solanum species are resistant to the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). The species being worked with at the Potato Research Centre are S. capsicibaccatum, S. okadae, S. oplocense, S. pinnatisectum, S. polyadenium, S. tarijense and S. trifidum.
Before the chemical nature of resistance was investigated for these 7 wild species, several years of field and laboratory studies were performed. These included evaluation of heritability of resistance, field evaluation of level of resistance, behavior of adults and larvae, evaluation of host preference, adult survival and oviposition, foliage consumption and suitability for larval development. For most species, field colonization was low, feeding inhibition was high and suitability for development was low. It was concluded that there is some difference in the mode of resistance between the 7 Solanum species, the mode of resistance is not physical (leaf thickness or trichome density) and resistance results from the production of chemicals by the plants.
The objective of the work was to determine whether the chemicals responsible for resistance were located on the surface of the leaf or inside the leaf tissue and whether or not they were glycoalkaloids.
Three different types of extractions were performed; extraction of leaf surface chemicals, extraction of glycoalkaloids and an extraction of leaf tissue with hexane, chloroform and water. The 5 extract residues were used as treatments in feeding bioassays using adult females, fourth instar larvae and first instar larvae of the CPB. The extracts were applied at the same concentration as they occurred in the leaf. For adults and fourth instar larvae, 1 individual was placed in a cage (9cm Petri dish, lined with a damp filter paper) containing 4 treated leaf disks and there were 3 replications of 10 cages. For first instar larvae, 10 individuals were placed in a cage with 2 treated leaf disks and there were 3 replications of 7 cages. Bioassays were 24 hours long.
The major resistance factors for 5 of the 7 wild Solanum species were located in the water-soluble portion of the leaf tissue extracts. The exceptions were S. tarijense and S. capsicibaccatum. With these two species the results were inconsistent between insect growth stages.
For all the species except S. tarijense, it was decided to concentrate
on the water-soluble portion of the leaf tissue extracts. Two fractionations
were done. One used column chromatography to produce 6 fractions. The
other used thin layer chromatography to produce 2 fractions, a phenolic
fraction and a glycoalkaloid fraction. The fractions are being tested
in feeding bioassays with first instar larvae. The results of these bioassays
should contribute to a better understanding of the chemical nature of
the resistance to the CPB of these wild Solanum species.
Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) are the most important pollinators of many plant species, including agricultural crops and wild flowers. As such, bees are keystone components of several agricultural and natural ecosystems, facilitating sexual reproduction within plant communities. Their activity therefore provides food directly to many forms of wild and domestic animal species, in addition to humans. Despite their importance, bee faunas traditionally receive little attention unless associated with important agricultural crops (i.e., lowbush blueberry and apple in Nova Scotia). The purpose of this presentation is to stress the importance of bees in all terrestrial ecosystems, discuss aspects of bee biology, and provide a summary of bees within the province of Nova Scotia.
Nova Scotia has 145 species of bees representing 27 genera from 6 families, as follows: COLLETIDAE - Colletes (9 species),Hylaeus (4 species); ANDRENIDAE - Andrena (38 species),Protandrena (1 species), Perdita (1 species), Calliopsis (1 species); HALICTIDAE - Augochlora(1 species), Augochlorella (1 species), Agapostemon (1 species), Halictus (3 spp.), Lasioglossum (31 species), Sphecodes (5 species); MELITTIDAE - Macropis (1 species); MEGACHILIDAE - Stelis(1 species), Coelioxys (5 species),Megachile (8 species plus 1 introduced), Hoplitis (3 species), Osmia (8 species plus 1 introduced); APIDAE - Ceratina (1 species),Nomada (6 species),Doeringiella (1 species), Epeolus (2 species), Melissodes (4 species), Anthophora (1 species),Bombus (10 species), Psithyrus (4 species), Apis (1 species).
The Bees of Nova Scotia - Part B Dick Rogers, Wildwood Labs, Kentville N.S.
Bee data is accumulating rapidly as researchers take on the challenge of investigating the biodiversity and environmental interactions of the group. As the volume of data on species classification, distribution, and hosts increases, there is a need to organize the information so it is more easily accessed and interpreted. Reational databases can provide the solution because a dbms can simplify data entry, check for data entry errors, reduce redundancy of data, and produce flexible and meaningful reports. The database presented here is a simple, flat file database that demonstrates a user-friendly interface for a distribution list of bee species. The database can easily be modified to take full advantage of the powerful relational capabilities of FileMaker Pro. Another beauty of the solution is that it can be bound for easy distribution, or it can be web enabled. To maximize the benefit of a fully developed bee database would require collaborative development and data contributions from all bee researchers. Such a database would make bee data more accessible to bee researchers and increase the value and knowledge obtained from the stored information.
General Ecology Section:
Evaluating the Ramp Pitfall Trap Sue Rigby, AAFC - Kentville, NS
This two year study evaluated the performance of a modified pitfall trap,
dubbed the 'ramp trap', by comparing it with a standard pitfall trap.
Ramp traps feature two attached ramps which provide access for ground
traveling arthropods to a container resting on the substrate. The study
was conducted to find if there are any capture differences and/or biases
between ramp traps and standard pitfall traps. Using Carabidae as performance
benchmarks, comparisons were made in capture numbers, species length,
and species diversity. The study found that there were no significant
differences in Carabidae captures between the trap types and that ramp
traps performed equally with the standard pitfall traps.
Comparison of different methods of flow measurement used to characterize stream insect habitat. Eedy, R. and D.Giberson, Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 - Student Presentation * Winner of the 2001 AES Presidents Prize*
The distribution and behaviour of benthic stream insects is strongly influenced by the force of water currents near the streambed (called near-bed flow). Near-bed flow is difficult to measure, and the accuracy of different methods varies among streams. We tested four different methods of evaluating near-bed flow in preparation for an upcoming study of benthic aquatic insects in a medium-sized section of the West River, Prince Edward Island. Each method of flow measurement was applied in 29 patches of stream (0.06 m2), selected to represent a wide range of flow conditions. To provide standard, reliable measurements of near-bed flow, we constructed velocity profiles (velocity measurements at different heights above a point on the streambed). Velocity profile measurements were compared to three less widely accepted types of flow measurements: 1) velocity at one height close to the streambed, 2) the movement of hemispheres with different densities, and 3) calculation of flow force from average streamflow and streambed shape. I will present results comparing measurements obtained using different methods, then discuss the practicality of each method for use in aquatic insect studies.
Stress monitoring in streams: genetic responses of black fly larvae as biological indicators Purcell, L., D. Giberson, and L. Hale, Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 - Student Presentation
Land-use practises, such as agriculture or forestry, can influence stream
ecosystem health through run-off of agricultural chemicals or erosion
of sediment. Water chemical testing can indicate the concentration of
certain elements and nutrients but gives no information on how organisms
are responding. In the past, community-based studies have been used extensively
to monitor organism response, but these studies are time-consuming and
costly. Another method is to use biological stress markers. A visible
stress response to heat, chemicals, and metals can be seen at genetically
active areas on the polytene chromosomes of black fly larvae (Insecta:
family Simuliidae), producing an enlarged region. These chromosome "puffs"
can then be related to potentially stressful conditions. Black fly larvae
were collected from streams receiving variable amounts of pesticide runoff
on PEI to determine the utility of polytene chromosomes as biological
stress markers. The larvae were fixed using Carnoy's solution and Feulgen
stained. The salivary glands were removed and cells were digitally photographed
for evaluation of chromosomes. The chromosomes of individuals from streams
where there was a higher agricultural land use demonstrated an increased
stress response compared to those with lower amounts of agriculture.
Discovery of a salt marsh caddisfly in PEI salt marshes. D. Giberson, Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3
Salt marshes are a common habitat type around much of the maritimes, and have a distinct but poorly known insect fauna, consisting mainly of Chironomidae (Diptera). During studies of insect emergence from several PEI salt marshes, adults of Limnephilus ademus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) were recorded emerging from the marshes in large numbers. Prior to this study, the larval habitat of L. ademus was not known, and caddisflies were not known to inhabit salt marshes in North America. The salt marsh pools where L. ademus were found are highly variable, with salinity conditions ranging from nearly fresh to seawater conditions or greater, and temperatures also fluctuate widely. In this paper, I will introduce you to the caddisfly and its habitat on PEI.
PROVINCIAL PEST UPDATES
Pest Update for Newfoundland
Peggy L. Dixon, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
St. John's, Newfoundland
Juanita R. Coady, Department of Forest Resources and Agrifoods
Corner Brook, Newfoundland
The main factor affecting insect populations this year has been the weather. In general, there was abundant snow cover (> 6 m in St. John's) through the winter, followed by a cool wet spring and a hot, extremely dry summer. This combination of weather seems to have favoured some species and been detrimental to others. Many of the common agricultural pests are fewer than usual, presumably due to the lack of rain. Exceptions include many of the Lepidoptera, such as the imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae, and some of the cutworms. There are huge numbers of earwigs, mourning cloak butterflies (Nymphalis antiopa), the elm spanworm (Ennomos subsignaria) and the red admiral (Vanessa atalanta). The armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta), which devastated parts of the Maritimes this year, did not appear in Newfoundland or Labrador.
Juanita Coady is the new Pest Management Specialist with the Department of Forest Resources and Agrifoods, replacing Goldie Porter who has moved to another Department. The position has been relocated from St. John's to Corner Brook.
Carolyn Parsons, who graduated from NSAC in the spring of 2001, will be starting an M.Sc. degree at Memorial University in September. Carolyn intends to study habitat manipulation as a cultural control method for the cabbage maggot. She has been awarded an NSERC fellowship and will be co-supervised by Peggy Dixon and Murray Colbo.
Recent articles in local newspapers continue to reflect the public's
growing concern about pesticide use. Although focussed primarily on cosmetic
use on lawns and in parks and playgrounds, this issue will no doubt expand
to agriculture at some point. As professional entomologists this issue
is something we should be thinking about.
Provincial Pest Update for PEI
Rachael Cheverie, IPM Specialist PEIDAF
The winter of 2000-2001 was warmer than usual so we did not have a heavy frost before the first snowfall came. Because there was very little frost in the ground and more than adequate snow cover, 2001 has been a 'banner year' for bugs!
We suspect a number of insects overwintered that would normally not survive this far North. (ie armyworm, green peach aphid, etc...) There has been an abundance of insects this season.
Black flies and mosquitos appeared early in the spring and because of the heavy snow cover and subsequent melt there were many breeding areas across the province. These pest populations remained quite high right through July until the dry weather slowed things down.
There were also an abundance of ground beetles this year. The Agricultural Information Office was receiving up to 10 calls daily over a two week period from people who had ground beetle infestations in their homes.
There have also been a number of 'interesting' insects found this year.
One carrot grower brought in a number of beautiful swallowtail butterfly
caterpillars that were destroying one area of his field. Identification
by Mary Smith and Christine Noronha at AAFC believe that this is a species
that has never before been found in PEI. They are rearing the larvae out
now to determine which species it is.
Now for the crop pests:
Cereals and Forages: (Peter Boswall - Field Crops Development Officer)
No one remembers a year when aphid numbers were as high and as widespread
in cereals especially late planted cereals. This was perhaps weather related
and the impact on yield appears to be difficult to separate from weather
effects as well. However, while barley in the best early seeded fields
averaged 1.4 - 1.5 tonnes per acre, later planted barley is only approaching
1.1 -1.2 tonnes per acre test weights in later grain are also lighter.
Could half the yield difference be due to aphids? The demo plots at the
research station were planted late and sprayed early for aphids it will
be interesting to see how they yield in comparison to other late seeded
Armyworms!! Their impact was felt in their potential to affect grain yields and in the destruction caused to under-seeded forage and to a much lesser extent on pastures. The province began a monitoring program in early June to trap adult moths to determine which areas may be affected by armyworm this season. We set out traps in all the areas with high infestations in 2000. Peak trap numbers were reached on the 3rd week of June and armyworm larvae started to appear in grain crops by the 10th of July. We suspect that armyworm did overwinter in PEI last year and if current global warming trends continue this might become a more 'frequent' pest in this region. Any further appearance could see some of the growers that had a problem the past three seasons move towards tramlines to facilitate spraying as a large percentage of the crop was unharvestable due to the number of sprayer tracks in the field.
We are seeing all of the 'usual suspects' in potato fields this year but perhaps in higher numbers in some areas of the province. Many growers across the province have switched to Admire in-furrow insecticide and so had little problems with Colorado potato beetle, potato flea beetle, or aphids. However they did see an increase in European cornborer damage as this product does not affect cornborer and in the past, spraying for Colorado's with some of the OP's and Carbamates often coincided with cornborer infestations so a second spray was not often needed. In most fields that didn't have admire infurrow, Colorado potato beetle populations were very high and growers had a hard job trying to keep them controlled.
A number of organic growers released Podius sp. eggs in an attempt to control Colorado potato beetle populations since they are no longer able to purchase Bt in Canada. Results have not been compiled yet but only a few of the Podius adults have actually been seen feeding on CPB larvae in the field.
We also saw a fairly large number of fields affected by potato leafhopper this year which is only an occasional pest on the island. We assume this is because of the hot dry weather we had throughout the month of July.
We are also seeing a large number of fields affected by tarnished plant bug this year and again this is usually seen during hot dry summers.
Potato yields will be down significantly this year but it is more likely due to the drought conditions rather than insect damage.
Fruit Crops: (Chris Jordan - Small Fruit Crop Development Officer)
Blueberries - fruit fly (blueberry maggot) - imp. for processing industry
Apples - Red Mites and spring feeding caterpillars, all orchards used pheromone disruption for codling moth control. And Apple maggot populations were similar to other years.
Cranberries - No major pest outbreaks but there was not a lot of monitoring done this year. Had one grower complaining of aphid infestation in his bog and another with strawberry root weevil larvae doing some damage.
Raspberries / Strawberries - I haven't seen / heard of any major problems.
Lettuce - a number of calls about aphids and tarnished plant bug damage
Cole crops - Early in the season populations of root maggots and diamond back moths seemed to be on average with other years. Drought is the biggest challenge this year and a lot of fields have been disced under due to lack of moisture so insects have been the least of their worries.
Pest Update: Insects
on Agricultural Crops in
Christopher Maund, IPM Specialist (Entomologist)
New Brunswick Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture
Agriculture Development Branch
Integrated Pest Management Section
P.O. Box 6000, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5H1
The following is an update on relevant insect and related pest activity affecting agricultural crops in NB from July 200 to August 2001.
Lowbush Blueberry (2001): Two thousand hectares were treated for control of the blueberry flea beetle, Altica sylvia Malloch, in northeastern NB.
The blueberry leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta vaccinii (Fall), which is typically a very minor pest of blueberries in NB, was at unusually very high population levels in parts of southeastern and northeastern NB in May and June. Adult beetles caused obvious signs of skeletonized leaf damage, which was generally restricted to one to two metres of blueberry field edges adjacent to a forested area.
Strawberry (2001): High populations of twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, were reported by various growers.
Apple (2001): There have been some positive results with the attempt to use predatory mites for the control of twospotted spider mites and European red mites, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), in apple orchards in NB. Two growers have eliminated the use of summer miticides in two orchards. It is hopeful that, in time, populations of beneficial mites will increase in the other test-site orchards. The sites in NB are part of a larger study, directed by entomologists from Nova Scotia.
Sites were set up in NB for codling moth control studies. Trials were set up for the control of codling moths with Last CallTM. Preliminary information is yielding positive results, as captures of codling moths on pheromone traps were lower in blocks treated with Last CallTM compared to untreated (control) blocks. These NB sites are also part of a larger study, directed by entomologists from Nova Scotia.
Potato (2001): Aphid populations have been low, but are starting to develop rapidly in some fields. Flea beetles have not been a problem, so far. Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), populations have been low.
Other Vegetables (2001): Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), became more of a problem on various crops in late July.
Grain crops (2001): Approximately 25,000 acres were treated for control of the armyworm, Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth), (synonym: Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Approximately 80% of this acreage was barley, with the remainder being wheat. This was the second year of the armyworm infestation. In 2000: Approximately 1000 acres of grain crops had been infested by the armyworm.
Forage crops (2001): Approximately 5,000 acres (pastures) were treated for control of the armyworm, M. unipuncta. In 2000: Approximately 5,800 to 7,000 acres had been infested by the armyworm.
Noteworthy 2001 samples (up to August):
There was a report of "hundreds" of spiders on the outside of a house. The spider was identified as an orb weaver, Araneus sp. There were reports of higher than usual populations of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), caterpillars in southern NB. There were a few reports of large numbers of root weevils, Otiorhynchus spp., invading houses. There were reports of numerous green weevils from northern NB, suspected to be Polydrusus sericeus (Schall.), as this was the species identified in previous year's samples. Numerous telephone calls were received regarding armyworms infesting lawns, which did not occur last year. There was a report of large numbers of adult yellow mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor L., in hay. There was a separate report of large numbers of these beetles invading a house. The Essex skipper, Thymelius lineola (Ochsenheimer), was reported from a grain field. The fourlined plant bug, Poecilocapsus lineatus (Fabricius), was reported to be feeding on potato plants. Leaf beetles, Calligrapha sp., were reported to have defoliated 50% of the leaf surface area of dogwood trees.
Noteworthy samples from 2000 (July onwards):
The back yard of a house was overrun by a large population of ground beetles, Harpalus rufipes (De Geer). Weevils, tentatively identified as Philopedon plagiatum (Schaller), were reported to have infested snap bean plants. A few instances of large numbers of root weevils, Otiorhynchus spp., were reported from homeowners. Hairy chinch bugs, Blissus leucopterus hirtus Montandon, were a problem in lawns. High populations of alder flea beetle larvae, Altica ambiens alni Harrison, were reported on alders throughout large areas of the southern part of the province. The large flour beetle, Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart, was received from a grocery store in Halifax. A high population (apparently hundreds) of the chainspotted geometer moth, Cingilia catenaria (Drury), was reported from York county. Hundreds of small dung flies (Sphaeroceridae) were reported to occur in various rooms in a newly-constructed house. (These flies have been reported to inhabit insulation material prior to it being used for insulating walls.)
Acadian Entomological Society 61st Annual Business Meeting
Friday August 24th, 2001 9:30 - 10:30 AM
Duffy Science Building, UPEI,
- ESC Representative
- Joint ESC/AES meeting for 2004
- Other business
Acadian Entomological Society
61st Annual Business Meeting
UPEI Charlottetown. PEI
The 61st annual meeting of the Acadian Entomological society was held on August 24th, 2001 at the University of Prince Edward Island in Charlottetown P.E.I. The meeting was called to order by president Rachael Cheverie at 9:50 am. Minutes were recorded by Christine Noronha.
· The agenda was accepted as presented, approved by Donna Giberson and seconded Gilles Boiteau.
· 2000 minutes: Attention was brought to some spelling errors in the 2000 minutes which were noted and corrected.
· 1999 minutes: Rachael informed those present that she had still not received the minutes from the 1999 meeting. She had found out from Peggy Dixon that the person responsible had changed positions so it was unlikely that those minutes would ever be received.
· Mailing list: The mailing list (e-mail) had been updated and the proceedings for the 2001 meeting would be e-mailed to all those on the list.
· Website: Donna Giberson set up a new AES website and will be responsible for maintaining and updating the site. The membership list and names of the new executive will be on the new site.
The minutes were approved by Shiyou Li and seconded by Gary Halloway
· A copy of the president's report is attached.
· Christine Noronha gave the financial report. An updated report reflecting all conference fees and expenditures is attached. Membership stands at 23.
· None of the committees were active at that time.
• A suggestion to keep all society material from past conferences and activities at a central location instead of shipping them to a new location every two years was made. It was decided that all material will be shipped to J.P Lablanc to be archived.
· The next meeting will be held in Maine. July 21-23 were proposed as the tentative dates.
• Donna Giberson agreed to be the AES representative at the 2002 ESC meeting in Manitoba.
Joint ESC/AES meeting 2004:
• It was suggested that although the AES executive will be in New Brunswick the joint meeting should be held in Charlottetown. A committee on PEI will be in charge of all local arrangements with the NB executive in charge of the scientific program followed by a discussion. Gilles Boiteau offered to take the suggestion to the NB executive for further discussion.
• The best time to hold these meeting was further discussed. Late July to early August was preferred by most. It was decided that this decision should be left up to the organizing committee.
Donna Giberson moved to adjourn the meeting seconded by Shiyou Li.
The meeting adjourned at 11:15 am.
It's hard to believe that it's already the end of my term as President of the Acadian Entomological Society. It has been an interesting and challenging couple of years and I've learned a lot in a short amount of time. I took this responsibility on 'blindly' and but would like to say that it's been a real pleasure to be involved in such a successful organization with such a diverse and dedicated membership.
I would like to express my gratitude to the rest of our AES executive, Drs. Donna Giberson and Christine Noronha. They have put a lot of hard work and effort into organizing this meeting and have been extremely generous with their time and support.
Finally I wish my colleagues in Maine every success in hosting the next AES meeting and I look forward to seeing you all there next year.
ACADIAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY FINANCIAL REPORT
January 11, 2001 …………………… January 10, 2002
Balance forwarded …………………………… ……………… 2843.82
Membership .………………………………………….. 280.00
Registration .……………………………………… ….. 945.13
Conference Supplies …………………………………………… 57.95
Reception …………………………………………… 324.42
Banquet …………………………………... 660.00
Student Award …………………………………… 100.00
Gift Keynote Speaker …………………………………………… 42.76
Bank charges for cheques ……………… …………… 5. 25
Interest …………………………………… .14
TOTAL BALANCE 2879.33
GIC (Toronto Dominion Bank, PEI) ………………………………. 4359.09
BY-LAWS OF THE ACADIAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
(Including Amendments passed at the 60th Annual Meeting,
June 22nd, 2000)
The name of the Society shall be the "Acadian Entomological
The Society shall be affiliated with the incorporated
Entomological Society of Canada in accordance with the constitutional
by-laws of that society.
To bring about a close association of entomologists and
those interested in entomology in the four Atlantic provinces and the
neighbouring New England States, and to cooperate with and to support
the incorporated Entomological Society of Canada.
4.1 Regular Member
Anyone interested in the objects of the Society shall be eligible for regular membership.
4.2 Honorary Member
(a) Election of honorary members shall be effected as follows: Nomination by at least three members of the Society in good standing and submitted for consideration to the membership committee which will pass to a general meeting of the society those names which meet with their unanimous approval. Election shall be by secret ballot, requiring 75%of the members present at a general meeting.
(b) Nominators shall submit with the nomination a description of the qualifications of the nominee sufficient to inform the membership committee and the general meeting of complete basis for the nomination. The nominee shall be selected from the ranks of those who have made outstanding contributions to entomology, particularly in the Atlantic Region. Although no rigid number of honorary members is set, the honour shall be bestowed upon a conservative number of individuals.
( c) Honorary members are not required to pay dues but may also become regular members if they desire voting privileges.
(d) An honorary president may be elected from the honorary
membership list. Election to this office will follow the same procedure
as that required for initial honorary membership.
Dues shall be ten dollars ($10.00) per year for a Regular Member and six dollars ($6.00) per year for student members unless otherwise decided by a two thirds majority vote at a meeting of the membership or by letter ballot.
5.1 Dues shall be due and payable on the first day of January in each year. Members who have not paid their dues within the first four months of the financial year for which they are payable shall be dropped from the membership.
5.2 Members of the Acadian Entomological Society shall
pay the prescribed dues to the Secretary-Treasurer of the Acadian Entomological
6. Financial Year
The financial year of the Society shall be the calendar year.
6.1 Not later than 31 December, the President shall appoint
an auditor from the membership to audit the accounts of the Society.
The affairs of the Society shall be managed by an executive consisting of the President, Vice-President, Secretary-Treasurer, immediate past-President and the Acadian Entomological Society representative to the Board of Directors of the Entomological Society of Canada.
7.1 The President and Vice-President shall be elected in odd numbered years and shall hold office for two years or until their successors are elected. The newly elected officers shall take office following the completion of business at the annual meeting.
7.2 The representative to the Board of Directors of the incorporated Entomological Society of Canada shall be nominated in an election year at a meeting of the Society or by mail ballot. The term to be for three years.
7.3 The Secretary-Treasurer shall be appointed by the
President for the presidential term of office.
Elections shall be held every odd numbered year at a meeting of the membership. Every odd numbered year shall be termed the election.
8.1 The president shall appoint a nominating committee of three members two months before the meeting of the election year. This committee shall secure a member's permission before proposing his name for office, and shall submit one or more names for each office. The retiring President shall be a nominee for the office of Representative on the Board of Directors of the incorporated Entomological Society of Canada, providing he is a member of good standing of the latter Society and is able to act.
8.2 The nominating committee shall submit a slate of officers at the meeting of the election year.
8.3 The retiring Secretary/Treasurer shall send the results
of the election to the Secretary of the incorporated Entomological Society
9. Meeting of the Membership
The executive may call annual meetings of the membership but shall always hold a meeting of the membership during the election year. The annual meeting of the Society shall normally be held during the month of April, but may be changed for any year at the discretion of the Executive.
9.1 Ten paid up members at a duly called meeting shall constitute a quorum.
9.2 A report on the meeting of the membership shall be
prepared by and retained in the files of the Secretary/Treasurer. A copy
shall be sent to each member.
10. Standing Committees
The newly elected president shall appoint a chairman to each of the following standing committees:
10.1 Membership Committee
The membership committee shall consist of three members appointed by the president plus the Secretary/Treasurer as Chairman. The Committee shall represent the Atlantic Provinces geographically and shall be guided by the procedures recommended by the Membership Committee of the Entomological Society of Canada and shall cooperate with that Committee.
10.2 Archives Committee
The Library Committee consists of four members appointed by the President. The Committee shall represent the Atlantic Provinces geographically and shall collect articles, reprints and books by members and former members and articles, reports, and books about entomology in the region and care for them in a library or archives.
10.3 Pest Management Committee
The Pest Management Committee consists of three members appointed by the President. The Committee shall represent the Atlantic Provinces geographically. The function of the committee is to provide opinions on pest management matters in the name of the Society to the general public and handle such other pest management related duties as requested by the President.
10.4 The Committee shall consist of three members appointed
by the President. The committee shall consider and implement means of
generating entomological interest in students. The Chairman may be representative
of the Society of the Public Education Commitee of the Entomological Society
of Canada. The representative to the Board of Directors of the incorporated
Entomological Society of Canada may be one of the three members appointed
to this Committee. The executive shall decide whether a student oral paper
competition will be held at the annual meeting and appoint a regular member
to organize it. The guidelines for elegibility of students are that they
must be enrolled as an undergraduate or graduate student at the time of
the annual meeting. A letter signed by their advisor or major professor
must be submitted to the member organizer prior to the annual meeting.
The winner of the student competition (determined by an ad-hoc committee
of AES members) will receive a certificate and $100.00 (in the currency
of the host country). Other student participants will receive a certificate
11. Amendments of By-Laws
The by-laws may be replaced or amended by a two-thirds majority vote of a quorum
either at a meeting or by letter ballot.
Annual Meetings and Principal Officers
Acadian Entomological Society 1915-2001
Honorary Members of the Acadian Entomological Society
F.M. Cannon - Charlottetown, PEI
D. Eidt - Fredericton, N.B.
M.E. MacGillivray - Fredericton, N.B.
C.R. MacLellan - Kentville, N.S.
R.F. Morris - St. John's, Nfld
D.C. Read - Charlottetown, PEI
W. Shands - Salem, SC, USA
G.W. Simpson - Orono, ME, USA
V.R. Vickery - Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Que.